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Btc 2011 question paper

Октябрь 2, 2012

btc 2011 question paper

El. Ed., D. El. Ed. Old Paper. Deled Previous Year Question Paper, up btc question paper, previous year. If you are preparing for UPDELEd BTC – 19 – 20 exam, then these model papers will be very helpful for you. UPDELEd BTC Model Question Papers are published. Btc 1st semester paper Old Question Papers, Previous Year Question Paper, Old Paper. lessonplanformat. Lesson Plan Format. 2k followers. VKC FOREX NANGANALLUR

We find that Bitcoin markets exhibit excess volatility in the sense that the volatility is up to 10 times higher than the volatility of the exchange rates. We understand such a high level of volatility as an obstacle for Bitcoin to perform all functions associated with a currency means of exchange, unit of account, and store of value in a reliable and efficient manner.

Also, we find that the dynamics of Bitcoin volatility are different from and unrelated to FX volatility which suggests that Bitcoin does not yet belong to the global market of currencies. The article proceeds as follows. We first describe the Bitcoin market and related regulatory aspects in Sect. In Sect. The empirical analysis follows in Sect.

Section 5 concludes. The Bitcoin market Market characteristics The Bitcoin market is a fully electronic market which has been introduced on October 31, by Satoshi Nakamoto as a peer-to-peer network without any central authority. Hence, there is no central bank or any other single intermediary involved and transactions are verified by a network of nodes that check the accuracy of the latest transaction against their register of total transactions, called the blockchain.

The transaction is subsequently added to the ledger, and information is redistributed to other nodes. This is one fundamental difference. Footnote 2 Bitcoins are mined by providing network services like verifying and collecting newly broadcast transactions which are added to a block. In order for a block to be accepted in the network, miners have to provide proof of authenticity by finding a specific number called a nonce.

A hash function which maps the nonce back to an easily verifiable bit string ensures that the block is valid cp. Antonopoulos As of August 31, , there were They amounted to a total market value of billion USD. While the number of bitcoins has increased steadily since its introduction, demand and, thus, market value, has also increased albeit less steadily.

For example, during the price for one Bitcoin increased from less than 1, US dollars to more than 19, US dollars and fell back to 8, US dollars by mid of The figure presents the total number of Bitcoins in circulation dotted line, left axis and the market capitalization in million USD solid line, right axis from March 1, to September 9, Full size image In light of this high volatility, many people have questioned whether Bitcoin can ever fulfill the tasks of a currency.

Aiming to avoid the excessive volatility of cryptocurrencies while preserving the benefits of the blockchain technology led to the concept of low volatility stablecoins Lyons and Viswanath-Natraj ; Eichengreen like Tether Tether Operations Ltd. Also, a consolidated tape is not available albeit all markets trade the same object.

The minimum tick size during the sample period is subject to change as the exchanges adjust it in response to the Bitcoin price. Transaction fees are charged by the different platforms as a percentage of total transaction volume. For example, BitStamp charges between 0.

Kraken additionally distinguishes between order types and submitting a market order is slightly more costly than submitting a limit order. There may be additional fixed costs for wire transfers or other services provided. A critical issue in the Bitcoin framework is the regulation of cryptocurrencies which is heterogeneous across countries. In some jurisdictions, Bitcoin is completely banned e. In between these extremes are countries like Bahrain or Qatar which tolerate that their citizens use Bitcoin abroad, but not within the country Global Legal Research Center In addition to restrictions of use, treatment of gains for tax purposes also varies greatly.

In general, Bitcoin transactions are free from VAT, but gains are subject to tax. Table 1 provides an overview of selected countries which are related to the exchanges in our study. It is interesting to note that even the definitions vary across countries and have changed over the years, e. Table 1 Legal Status in Selected Jurisdictions Full size table Recently, regulation of cryptocurrencies has been again in the focus of law-makers and central banks following the proposal of Facebook, Inc.

Mersch and Adachi et al. They conclude that a stablecoin of global importance might endanger financial stability in case of malfunctions. In contrast, Baughman and Flemming conclude that the demand for a global stable coin would be so low that there is no risk for the global financial system.

However, it is not easy to predict the demand for such products. Consider again Fig. However, starting from , and thus four years after the introduction, the global demand started to rise and Bitcoin became recognized as the first and biggest global cryptocurrency. While traditional security issues associated with money like bank robberies and counterfeiting of physical currency notes are no concern for cryptocurrencies, they face similar problems such as cyberattacks Dion-Schwarz et al.

For example, Kraken has been the target of multiple distributed denial of service DDoS attacks e. In the absence of binding regulation, it is unclear whether the exchange should be held accountable in such a situation when trading is made impossible.

As Vasek et al. Exposure to this kind of risk is potentially reflected in the volatility of Bitcoin prices. We analyze this issue in more detail in Sect. Data and descriptive analysis In our analysis, we use historical price time series obtained from two different sources. The dataset of Bitcoin prices across different markets is obtained from investing.

It covers daily open, high, low, and close prices for Bitcoin traded against the U. The sample starts April 1, for the Kraken and Bitfinex data, as well as the euro and yen exchange rates against the US dollar. Bitcoin data are available on a daily basis, FX data from Monday to Friday. All time series are available until August 30, As not all of these markets were operational during the entire period since the introduction of Bitcoin, we also source a long time series of Bitcoin prices from bitinfocharts.

The data cover the period July 17, until August 30, and are sampled on a daily frequency. Market information Bitcoin market capitalization and number of coins in circulation is obtained from blockchain. These data start in March and also go till August 30, Figure 2 presents time series plots of the so obtained volatility estimate.

It is immediately apparent that Bitcoin volatility is much higher than the volatility of the FX rates. The plots also suggest that the volatility of volatility is higher in the Bitcoin case. This observation holds across all Bitcoin markets and all currencies against which Bitcoin is traded. The figure presents time series of daily volatility in percent from January 1, to January 25, for the six Bitcoin markets and the two foreign exchange markets Full size image Table 2 presents descriptive statistics for returns and volatility.

As can be seen, the average return of Bitcoin is similar across five out of the six markets. The slightly negative return observed on BTCBOX is due to the fact that the time series for this market only starts in January , amidst the downturn period after the all-time high in December The minimum values, however, are similar across all markets, reflecting the sharp downturn in March In contrast, the FX rates are rather stable across the sample period with an average return close to zero and an average volatility estimate below 0.

Also, the volatility of volatility is much lower in case of the FX rates as can be seen from the standard deviation of volatility which is times higher for Bitcoin than for the FX rates. High volatility in general in connection with the high volatility of volatility fosters extreme price fluctuations which are frequently observed in the Bitcoin market.

Table 2 Descriptive Statistics Full size table We also test for the existence of structural breaks in the time series of volatility using the approach in Chan et al. It turns out that none of the time series exhibits a structural break. Trend in volatility In order to assess the development of volatility over a long time period, we estimate an AR 1 -GARCH 1,1 model Bollerslev with t-distributed innovations on our long daily price time series.

The resulting time series of volatility is displayed in Figure 3. As can be seen, the volatility has been higher at the beginning of the sample period than toward the end. Ultimately, this would be good news for the potential of evolving as a stable currency. However, the initial downward trend does not persist across the entire sample period. Considering the whole period from to , we observe a slight downward trend which, in a regression of volatility on time, even turns out statistically significant, albeit economically weak with 0.

This trend stopped after the first hype of Bitcoin at the end of Considering volatility between and , a similar trend regression leads to the conclusion that volatility is constant throughout these years, i. The figure presents volatility of Bitcoin over time with two time trends: blue covers the entire period from July to August and brown starts January and ends August Full size image Market correlations A final aspect which we want to highlight is the question how the markets covary.

This is important as the price difference between platforms trading Bitcoin can be substantial. If the information dissemination between markets works well, the pairwise correlation between daily transaction returns on those exchanges should be high as they all trade the same good Bitcoin. This is in general supported by our data.

Figure 4 presents the daily conditional correlation of returns based on a DCC-GARCH 1,1 model Engle , using the pairs for which the longest time series are available. The correlations of Bitcoin returns are high in general 0. In addition, they are higher than the correlation of the FX returns which is on average 0. Still, the correlations only tend to converge to one at the end of the sample period, irrespective of whether Bitcoin is traded in the same currency e.

This observation also holds for the remaining unreported combinations. The bottom left graph in Fig. On average, the correlation across time is 0. The graph presents the dynamic conditional correlation of the daily return time series in the named markets Full size image The evolution of Bitcoin return correlations has important implications in terms of market efficiency.

In an efficient market setup, one should be able to construct a roundtrip. The cost to implement this trading strategy should be equal to the bid-ask spread plus some cost that may be involved when changing the trading venue. Put differently, if there are arbitrage gains to be made by buying in one market and selling in another market, prices should adjust to the fundamental value.

In a fully electronic market, this should happen quickly and ultimately lead to high correlations of price changes. In the Bitcoin setup, there seem to be opportunities for arbitrage gains, in particular at the beginning of the sample period, when the correlation was sometimes very low. This finding is in line with Shynkevich who reports that arbitrage gains are more difficult to realize since This is the period when the correlation tends toward one in Fig.

Empirical analysis This section analyzes the volatility of Bitcoin in crises, its role as a risk-diversifier in a portfolio, its similarity with major currencies, and its role as a medium of exchange and a store of value. Bitcoin volatility during crisis periods An important question concerning the volatility of Bitcoin is how it behaves during crises.

There are two sorts of crises which we distinguish. First, we have crises related to the Bitcoin market itself. These are the named DDoS attacks or hacks of exchanges. On the other hand, Bitcoin could also be related to the real economy and volatility might therefore be linked to the stock market. Since the data covers the COVID pandemic and thus the first financial crisis since the inception of Bitcoin in late , the analysis can provide some unique insights.

This is also related to the question whether Bitcoin is a safe haven which is impossible to test if there is no crisis as explained by Smales To test whether the volatility behaves differently in any of the two circumstances, we implement a GARCH 1,1 model Bollerslev using daily data from coinmarketcap.

For precise crisis dates in the latter case, we use the end of February until the end of May , inspired by the time when the stock market plummeted and rebounded. The estimation results are presented in Table 3. However, the order of magnitude is non-negligible as the unconditional variance is more than 10 times higher under attacks than usual.

While the parameter estimate suggests an increase, it is not statistically significant. To check the robustness of this finding, we also use March 31, , as the end of the COVID crisis, and the results are qualitatively identical; the parameter for the COVID crisis never turns out statistically significant.

The correlations are positive and thus different compared with previous findings. The correlations increase from 0. The optimal minimum variance weights of Bitcoin are 2. The higher correlation estimates for monthly and quarterly returns increase the variance by too much for weights to be larger than zero. The non-monotonicity of the weights is due to a deteriorating risk-return ratio of Bitcoin from daily to monthly return frequencies. The differences between the two optimization criteria are intuitive as the minimum variance portfolio is exclusively based on variances and covariances and thus ignores the estimated expected returns, whereas the optimal Sharpe ratio portfolio includes the latter and the high returns appear to dominate the variance resulting in much higher weights of Bitcoin compared with the minimum variance portfolios.

Given the evolution of Bitcoin and its youth, it is well possible that specific characteristics will change in the future. Hence, we briefly analyze the sensitivity of the estimates with regards to the portfolio weights. If the expected returns decreased, e. Its excess volatility implies very low or zero weights in a minimum variance portfolio. His uncles had a garbage-hauling business and had let him set up his operation at their facility.

The dirt parking lot was jammed with garbage trucks, which reeked in the summer sun. One wall was lined with four-foot-tall homemade computers with blinking green and red lights. The processors inside were working so hard that their temperature had risen to a hundred and seventy degrees, and heat radiated into the room. Each system was a jumble of wires and hacked-together parts, with a fan from Walmart duct-taped to the top.

Groce had built them three months earlier, for four thousand dollars. Ever since, they had generated a steady flow of bitcoins, which Groce exchanged for dollars, averaging about a thousand per month so far. He figured his investment was going to pay off.

Groce was engaged to be married, and planned to use some of his bitcoin earnings to pay for a wedding in Las Vegas later in the year. Still, he was proud of the powerful computing center he had constructed. The machines ran non-stop, and he could control them remotely from his iPhone. The arrangement allowed him to cut tobacco with his father and monitor his bitcoin operation at the same time.

Nakamoto knew that competition for bitcoins would eventually lead people to build these kinds of powerful computing clusters. Rather than let that effort go to waste, he designed software that uses the processing power of the lottery players to confirm and verify transactions. As people like Groce try to win bitcoins, their computers are harnessed to analyze transactions and insure that no one spends money twice.

He liked to stay up late at the garbage-hauling center and thrash through Black Sabbath tunes on his guitar. He gave all his computers pet names, like Topper and the Dazzler, and, between guitar solos, tended to them as if they were prize animals. He said that he would send me his thoughts on bitcoin in a day.

He pointed out that users were expected to download their own encryption software to secure their virtual wallets. Clear felt that the bitcoin software should automatically provide such security. For a few seconds, all I could hear on the other end of the line was laughter.

Clear had discovered that Lehdonvirta used to be a video-game programmer and now studies virtual currencies. Clear suggested that he was a solid fit for Nakamoto. Bitcoin removes those obstacles while preserving the anonymity of cash. Lehdonvirta is on the advisory board of Electronic Frontier Finland, an organization that advocates for online privacy, among other things.

Nonetheless, he believes that bitcoin takes privacy too far. A few days later, I spoke with Clear again. I then took one more opportunity to question him and to explain all the reasons that I suspected his involvement. But, he said, economics had never been a particular interest of his. Users are hidden, but transactions are exposed. The code is visible to all, but its origins are mysterious. The currency is both real and elusive—just like its founder.

The number of transactions decreased and the exchange rate plummeted. Commentators predicted the end of bitcoin. In September, however, volume began to increase again, and the price stabilized, at least temporarily. Meanwhile, in Kentucky, Kevin Groce added two new systems to his bitcoin-mining operation at the garbage depot and planned to build a dozen more. People use printed money less and less as it is, he said.

Consumers need something like bitcoin to take its place. He admitted that people made fun of him for it.

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Q: what is imaginary power of a child? Q: impact of environment on a child development? Q : factor which effect the process of learning? Q introduce the primary rule of learning? Q Meaning of child psychology? Q phase of pre adolescence stage? Q how you can develop the innovative, creativity power in a child? Q Define the personality? Q : how imaginary power developed in a human? Q what is heredity? Q what is environment? Q what the is the curve of learning? DI was easier than last year but still little calculation intensive with equal mix of Bar, Table and statement based questions.

Perfect mix of all topics so solving last five year papers will definitely help to understand the type of questions. No experimentation done this year. There were very few questions which had confusing or close options.

RC was typical, mix of science, philosophy, politics and culture based 4 sets with total of 12 questions. RC was very similar to CAT in the level of easiness. Logic was the total shock was expecting difficult sets like last year but was surprised to see easy sets direct questions.

Go through the easy puzzles given in any book and avoid the difficult problems in your mock papers. Last minute advice Through all difficult mock papers you have out of the window, CAT is much easier than that.

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To accomplish this without a trusted party, transactions must be publicly announced[1], and we need a system for participants to agree on a single history of the order in which they were received. The payee needs proof that at the time of each transaction, the majority of nodes agreed it was the first received.

Timestamp Server The solution we propose begins with a timestamp server. A timestamp server works by taking a hash of a block of items to be timestamped and widely publishing the hash, such as in a newspaper or Usenet post[]. The timestamp proves that the data must have existed at the time, obviously, in order to get into the hash.

Each timestamp includes the previous timestamp in its hash, forming a chain, with each additional timestamp reinforcing the ones before it. The proof-of-work involves scanning for a value that when hashed, such as with SHA, the hash begins with a number of zero bits.

The average work required is exponential in the number of zero bits required and can be verified by executing a single hash. Once the CPU effort has been expended to make it satisfy the proof-of-work, the block cannot be changed without redoing the work. As later blocks are chained after it, the work to change the block would include redoing all the blocks after it.

The proof-of-work also solves the problem of determining representation in majority decision making. If the majority were based on one-IP-address-one-vote, it could be subverted by anyone able to allocate many IPs. Proof-of-work is essentially one-CPU-one-vote. The majority decision is represented by the longest chain, which has the greatest proof-of-work effort invested in it.

If a majority of CPU power is controlled by honest nodes, the honest chain will grow the fastest and outpace any competing chains. To modify a past block, an attacker would have to redo the proof-of-work of the block and all blocks after it and then catch up with and surpass the work of the honest nodes. We will show later that the probability of a slower attacker catching up diminishes exponentially as subsequent blocks are added.

To compensate for increasing hardware speed and varying interest in running nodes over time, the proof-of-work difficulty is determined by a moving average targeting an average number of blocks per hour. Network The steps to run the network are as follows: New transactions are broadcast to all nodes. Each node collects new transactions into a block.

Each node works on finding a difficult proof-of-work for its block. When a node finds a proof-of-work, it broadcasts the block to all nodes. Nodes accept the block only if all transactions in it are valid and not already spent.

Nodes express their acceptance of the block by working on creating the next block in the chain, using the hash of the accepted block as the previous hash. Nodes always consider the longest chain to be the correct one and will keep working on extending it.

If two nodes broadcast different versions of the next block simultaneously, some nodes may receive one or the other first. In that case, they work on the first one they received, but save the other branch in case it becomes longer.

The tie will be broken when the next proof-of-work is found and one branch becomes longer; the nodes that were working on the other branch will then switch to the longer one. New transaction broadcasts do not necessarily need to reach all nodes.

As long as they reach many nodes, they will get into a block before long. Block broadcasts are also tolerant of dropped messages. If a node does not receive a block, it will request it when it receives the next block and realizes it missed one. Incentive By convention, the first transaction in a block is a special transaction that starts a new coin owned by the creator of the block. This adds an incentive for nodes to support the network, and provides a way to initially distribute coins into circulation, since there is no central authority to issue them.

The steady addition of a constant of amount of new coins is analogous to gold miners expending resources to add gold to circulation. In our case, it is CPU time and electricity that is expended. The incentive can also be funded with transaction fees. If the output value of a transaction is less than its input value, the difference is a transaction fee that is added to the incentive value of the block containing the transaction.

Once a predetermined number of coins have entered circulation, the incentive can transition entirely to transaction fees and be completely inflation free. The incentive may help encourage nodes to stay honest. If a greedy attacker is able to assemble more CPU power than all the honest nodes, he would have to choose between using it to defraud people by stealing back his payments, or using it to generate new coins. He ought to find it more profitable to play by the rules, such rules that favour him with more new coins than everyone else combined, than to undermine the system and the validity of his own wealth.

Reclaiming Disk Space Once the latest transaction in a coin is buried under enough blocks, the spent transactions before it can be discarded to save disk space. Old blocks can then be compacted by stubbing off branches of the tree. The interior hashes do not need to be stored. A block header with no transactions would be about 80 bytes. Around 6 — 7 questions were directly based on the books and study material you have.

Brush up the formulas for Equations and topics like Geometry areas and volumes and others will definitely help. Some of the questions more logic based not a direct application of the formulas. If you have done the quant thoroughly with proper understanding of the topics then solving these questions will not be a problem. There were 9 calculations based but straight forward Data Interpretation questions.

DI was easier than last year but still little calculation intensive with equal mix of Bar, Table and statement based questions. Perfect mix of all topics so solving last five year papers will definitely help to understand the type of questions. No experimentation done this year. There were very few questions which had confusing or close options.

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