Investing substation construction
The large number of investment and long construction period of substation projects can accurately and. effectively carry out investment. The Brockway substation was built in the 's, is made of wood, and has been deemed a fire hazard by the local fire department. Construction is underway on a. We invested $ million in multi-year upgrades to Kingston's oldest substation, located inside a heritage building on lower Queen Street. This. UPIN IPIN BERNYANYI SAMBIL BELAJAR FOREX
There are many techniques used to estimate project costs in the early stages of development. These methods, widely used in areas such as electrical engineering, include Phased Estimating, Multi-Element Estimating, Factoring Estimating, and Parametric Estimating, among others.
In general, the cost of electrical substations today can reach several tens of millions of euros, which depends on the type of facility, capacity, location, the degree of technical complexity of the project and a number of other factors. The financing schedule for the electrical substation and the amount of funds received at each stage of construction should be drawn up individually, taking into account the conditions of a specific project and the requirements of stakeholders.
Factors affecting the cost of an electrical substation When starting the engineering design of an electrical substation, it is necessary to clearly define its place in the power system, to determine the function that it should perform today and tomorrow. When determining the parameters of a substation under construction, it is important to clarify the investment efficiency indicators. Investment decisions are made on the basis of analytical information obtained from various sources.
The cost-benefit principle states that value is created when the benefit of a solution exceeds its cost. Any financial decisions made by project initiators and investors are closely related to the value of money over time. The money received the next year is worth more than the same amount when it was received in the fifth or tenth year of construction.
Most financial decisions made at the large business level must take into account the change in the value of money over time. The most important factors affecting the cost of a substation are the type of facility and its location in the system. Finding the optimal solution is often difficult and requires deep economic and technical analysis.
When choosing a specific technical solution for a substation, several factors are taken into account, such as the location of the substation and the length of the associated low voltage circuits, the type and layout of the site, the characteristics of medium and low voltage networks for connection.
Both investment and operating costs are taken into account when preparing an engineering project. The costs of construction of a substation, power lines and installations constitute the main costs incurred from the moment of making a decision on construction until the moment of putting this substation into operation.
Operating costs mainly include the cost of purchasing electricity, maintenance, repairs and energy losses. The exact proportions of these costs differ for each project. It is worth analyzing these costs not only at the construction stage, but also in the context of the long-term operation of the facility. The substation should be designed in such a way as to ensure the appropriate quality of electricity supplied to consumers at the lowest possible cost.
The power quality is determined, among other things, by the level of voltage harmonics, frequency, symmetry of the supply voltages. The substation must be flexible, that is, it must easily adapt to connecting new loads or increasing existing loads. It should also be simple and safe to use. The investment costs of a substation and transmission line spent during the construction and installation period represent any costs incurred from the moment the decision was made to build a given facility until its normal operation.
The cost of energy not delivered as a result of equipment failures is determined based on the failure rate, taking into account the average number of failures per year and the average duration of failures. Based on the experience of numerous implemented industrial and energy projects, our professional team can compare alternative options for the construction of electrical substations, choosing the optimal solution for the customer.
The financing of electrical substations requires in-depth knowledge and experience due to the numerous technical and economic factors affecting a project. For example, the location of the substation close to energy consumers allows to reduce the cross-section of wires due to less voltage drop at a distance.
This, on the one hand, reduces investment costs, however, reducing the cross-section of the wires in this case increases the operating energy losses. When placing transformer equipment inside the premises where energy consumers are located, there is no need for the construction of an overhead power transmission line. The disadvantage of this option is the need to allocate the appropriate equipped space, which may be associated with additional investment.
When choosing the design of the future electrical substation, our engineering team must find a balanced approach to parameters such as efficiency, loss rate, safety, access and ease of use, compact design, equipment size and weight, initial investment and maintenance costs.
The final decision always rests with the investor. Economic efficiency of electrical substation project Evaluating the economic efficiency of an electrical substation project is an important part of a feasibility study. This includes a number of economic indicators analyzed at the planning stage according to standard methods.
C is the sum of one-time and recurring annual costs incurred by the project participants from the start of construction to the time of closure of the facility. Moreover, an exponential rise in power consumption could foster the substation market growth in the ensuing period. With smart grids setting the trend globally, retrofit and refurbishment activities are poised to be pronounced. In a bid to streamline operations, leading companies are likely to do away with aging infrastructure.
Meanwhile, rigorous regulations and increased dependency on imports are expected to dent the business outlook. Governments have upped investments to streamline transmission and distribution systems. The Asia Pacific substation market share will witness an appreciable gain due to rising renewable energy capacity. Prominently, surging installation of wind energy could boost the industry growth.
The industry in North America is expected to witness growth during the forecast period, partly due to the surging penetration of electronic equipment. A notable uptick in power consumption across the U. Industry players expect transmission and distribution networks to witness notable investments across the region. Stakeholders envisage Europe to witness investments galore following the strong demand for an uninterrupted power supply. An infusion of funds into power grid infrastructure will be noticeable, with the U.
As constructed by Weidong et al. Tarmizi et al. With the development of artificial intelligence, machine intelligent algorithms, such as neural network model, support vector machine model, and gray prediction model, have gradually been used in project cost prediction. Gulcicek et al. Cheng et al. Liu et al. Qin et al.
Vahdani et al. Among these methods, support vector machines have unique advantages. SVM is a novel small sample learning method with solid theoretical basis [ 12 ]. It basically does not involve probability measure and law of large numbers, which is different from existing statistical methods [ 13 ]. Therefore, these characteristics of support vector machine make it very suitable for solving the problem of power transformation project construction cost prediction.
The quality of input data has a great impact on the accuracy of the prediction model. Therefore, it is necessary to introduce the feature selection method to reduce the dimension of the original data. The commonly used methods of dimension reduction include linear discriminant analysis LDA , principal component analysis PCA , and so on [ 15 ]. LDA is a supervised machine learning algorithm that uses tag information to select the direction with the best classification performance [ 16 ].
While PCA converts a given set of related variables dimensions into another set of unrelated variables by linear transformation. This algorithm is an unsupervised learning method, which is more suitable to be used in combination with other algorithms [ 17 ].
Therefore, this paper uses the latter to preprocess the model data. In order to improve the accuracy of prediction, evolutionary algorithms are usually introduced into the model to optimize the parameters. Guo et al. Yi et al. Among these optimization algorithms, particle swarm optimization PSO can quickly approach the optimal solution and effectively optimize the model parameters [ 21 , 22 ].
Due to good exploration capability, particle swarm optimization PSO has shown advantages on solving supervised feature selection problems [ 23 ]. In this paper, this algorithm is used to optimize the parameters of SVM. This study extends research on the construction cost prediction of substation projects. The meager literature has revealed that the application of machine learning method in construction cost prediction has significantly improved the accuracy of prediction and effectively optimized the construction management.
However, since the cost of substation project is affected by many complex factors, the accuracy of existing forecasting methods in this kind of special project is usually hard to meet the requirements. This study represents one of the first attempts to fill this important void by applying support vector machine optimized by principal component analysis and particle swarm algorithm to forecast the construction cost of substation projects.
Section 3 analyses the factors affecting the construction cost of substation project by using fishbone diagram. Section 4 conducts an empirical study. Section 5 compares the results to verify the proposed model, and Section 6 obtains the conclusion.
Model Principles 2. Support Vector Machine The support vector machine is a type of machine learning analysis model that is widely used in data identification and prediction [ 24 ]. The shear block formers are removed at this stage. The tower foundations are backfilled one leg at a time with the excavated material.
The backfill is placed and compacted in layers. All dimensions are checked following the backfilling process. If the excavated material is deemed unsuitable for backfilling imported fill material may be used also compacted in layers. When the base construction crew leave site they shall ensure to remove all surplus materials from the site including all unused excavated fill.
Once the tower base is completed and fully set usually after seven days it is ready to receive the tower body which is normally constructed in an area near he foundation site ready to be lifted and bolted into place. Transit van Chains and other small tools Concrete delivered by supplier to closest convenient point 38 ton gross 3.
The tower is normally lifted using a suitable all terrain or Gin pole crane. Reference to individual Environmental Reports should be made for specific details of mitigation measures proposed for individually identified sensitive sites. Hedgerows: re-planting with broadleaves and component species. General: Following the recommendations in the environmental report, a site appropriate, Environmental Management Plan will be agreed before construction works.
In accordance with the Code of Practice between EirGrid and the Minister of the Environment, Community and Local Government in relation to Archaeological Heritage a project archaeologist will be appointed to oversee the project.
Minimise time for excavations being open as far as possible. During any dewatering activities a water filtration system will be utilised to control the amount of sediment in surface water runoff. Removal of vegetation will be limited to the area of excavation. The locally excavated material will be reinstated immediately following construction to allow recovery of any potential groundwater level change as quickly as possible. The contractor will be required to make provision for removal of any concrete washwaters, most likely by means of tankering off-site and no such washwaters will be discharged to groundwater.
Soil stockpiles will remain undisturbed until re-use and reestablishment at the site. In order to reduce the risk of contamination arising as a result of spills or leakages, measures include, but are not limited to, the following: Storing fuels, chemicals, liquid and solid waste on impermeable surfaces. Undertaking refuelling of plant, equipment and vehicles on impermeable surfaces. Ensuring all tanks and drums are bunded in accordance with established best practice guidelines.
Provision of spill kits at high risk sites. A drip tray will be used beneath the fill point during refuelling operations in order to contain any spillages that may occur. Spill-kits and hydrocarbon absorbent packs will be stored in the cabin of each vehicle and operators will be fully trained in the use of this equipment.
All terrain crane depending on site Chains and other small tools Road material delivered by supplier to closest convenient point 38 ton gross Crew size: Generally 3 workers 4. Traffic Management will be in accordance with the details contained in the Environmental Report and recommendations of KCC. Construction traffic will comply with the local traffic requirements and in agreement with Kerry County Council road engineers.
Chapter 8 of the Traffic Signs Manual will be used on this project. Local groups will be consulted in advance of works: eg. Dirt on roads; If required, a wheel-wash shall be installed within the temporary works compound to wash dirt from the wheels of road trucks transporting spoil off site.
The access route shall be monitored to ensure no dirt accumulates on the public road due to the construction traffic and cleaned if required. A Construction Waste Management Plan will be implemented to minimise waste and ensure correct handling and disposal of construction waste in accordance with the Best Practice Guidelines on the Preparation of Waste Management Plans for Construction and Demolition Projects, Department of the Environment, July Waste Manager A member of the construction tem will be appointed as waste manager for the construction phase.
The waste manager will have overall responsibility to oversee, record and provide information to the relevant authorities on waste management for the project. Authority will be given to the waste manager to delegate responsibility to sub-contractors where necessary and to coordinate with suppliers, service providers and sub-contractors to prioritise waste prevention and salvage. The waste manager will be trained in how to set up and maintain a record keeping system, how to perform an audit and how to establish targets for waste management on site.
Excess inert soils and subsoils excavated that is not required for use as fill on site following discussions with the landowner, will be disposed of or re-used offsite. The volume of waste removed will dictate whether a certificate of registration, permit or licence is required. Metal Metal is highly recyclable; there are numerous companies that will accept these materials.
A segregated skip will be available in the site compound for storage of metals from site pending recycling. Hazardous Materials During actual construction activities, on-site storage of any hazardous wastes will be minimised, with refuelling and oil changes carried out on a regular basis off site.
In the unlikely event of any storage of all hazardous wastes on site, this will be undertaken so as to minimise potential for environmental impacts. Non-Recyclable Waste All non-recyclable wastes will be transferred to the site compound at the end of the working day. In the site compound there will be a general skip or other receptacle provided for non-hazardous waste not suitable for reuse or recycling.
This skip will include general wet waste mixed food waste and food packaging , polystyrene, contaminated cardboard, contaminated plastic etc. Prior to removal, the receptacle will be examined by the waste manager to determine that recyclable materials have not been placed in there. If this is the case, efforts will be made to determine the cause of the waste not being segregated correctly.
This includes the requirement for all waste contractors to have a waste collection permit issued by local authority where the majority of the contractors business takes place. If the waste is being transported to another site, a copy of the waste permit or EPA Waste Licence for that site must be provided to the waste manager. If the waste is being shipped abroad, in this unlikely event a copy of the Transfrontier Shipping TFS document must be obtained from Dublin City Council as the relevant authority on behalf of all local authorities in Ireland and kept on site along with details of the final destination permits, licences etc.
A receipt from the final destination of the material will be kept as part of the waste management records. Generally this work is carried out by a specialised agricultural contractor and is carried in accordance with the relevant IFA agreements and in consultation with the individual landowner.
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