Name reactions of alcohols phenols and ethers pdf
alcohol ether peroxide Many alcohols are named using non-systematic nomenclature Properties of alcohols and phenols: Hydrogen bonding. Name the reagent used in the following reaction: Dehydration of propanol to propene. NCERT Chemistry (Vol 2). Chapter 2 Alcohols, phenols and ethers. iv.) Question Name the reagents used in the following reactions: I. Oxidation of a primary alcohol to carboxylic acid. MLB PICKS AND PARLAYS TODAY
The weak polarity of ethers do not appreciably affect their boiling points which are comparable to those of the alkenes of comparable molecular mass. Ethers have much lower boiling points as compared to isomeric alcohols. This is because alcohols molecules are associated by hydrogen bonds while ether molecules cannot form hydrogen bonds with other ether molecules. Ethers can form hydrogen bonds with water, however, as water contains the partially positive hydrogen atoms required for H-bonding.
Thus, ethers containing up to 3 carbon atoms are soluble in water, due to the formation of H-bonds with water molecules. The solubility of ethers decreases with an increase in the number of carbon atoms. The relative increase in the hydrocarbon portion of the molecule decreases the tendency of H-bond formation with water. Ethers are appreciably soluble in more nonpolar organic solvents and in fact, can be used as a solvent to dissolve nonpolar to mildly polar molecules.
In addition, ethers are very non-reactive. In fact, with the exception of the alkanes, cycloalkanes and fluorocarbons, ethers are probably the least reactive common class of organic compounds. The inert nature of the ethers relative to the alcohols is undoubtedly due to the absence of the reactive O—H bond. A general anesthetic acts on the brain to produce unconsciousness and a general insensitivity to feeling or pain.
Figure 9. This painting shows an operation in Boston in in which diethyl ether was used as an anesthetic. Inhalation of ether vapor produces unconsciousness by depressing the activity of the central nervous system. Diethyl ether is relatively safe because there is a fairly wide gap between the dose that produces an effective level of anesthesia and the lethal dose.
However, because it is highly flammable and has the added disadvantage of causing nausea, it has been replaced by newer inhalant anesthetics, including the fluorine-containing compounds halothane, and the halogenated ethers, desflurane, isoflurane, and sevoflurane.
The halogenated ethers, isoflurane, desflurane, and sevoflurane, show reduced side effects when compared with diethyl ether. Unfortunately, the safety of these compounds for operating room personnel has been questioned. For example, female operating room workers exposed to halothane suffer a higher rate of miscarriages than women in the general population.
Ethers are also common functional groups found in natural products and can have unique biological activities. In fact, some very large compounds containing multiple ethers, called polyethers, have been found to cause neurotoxic shellfish poisoning. In this example, the dinoflaggelate, Karina brevis, which is the causative agent of red tide algal blooms, produces a class of highly toxic polyethers called the brevatoxins.
Brevatoxin A is depicted in Figure 9. Symptoms of this poisoning include vomiting and nausea and a variety of neurological symptoms such as slurred speech. The dinoflaggelate, Karina brevis, shown in the upper left is the causative agent of red tide harmful algal blooms. These marine algal blooms can be quite extensive as shown in the photo of a red tide upper right occurring near San Diego, CA. Brevatoxin A is depicted as an example. Filter feeding clams and muscles become contaminated with the dinoflaggelate and can cause neurotoxic shellfish poisoning if eaten.
Red tides can have severe economic costs as fisheries and shellfish harvesting has to be closed until toxin levels in commercial products return to acceptable levels. Aldehydes are typically more reactive than ketones. These structures can be found in many aromatic compounds contributing to smell and taste. As discussed before, we understand that oxygen has two lone pairs of electrons hanging around.
These electrons make the oxygen more electronegative than carbon. The polarizability is denoted by a lowercase delta and a positive or negative superscript depending on the atom. Properties of Aldehydes and Ketones Aldehydes In aldehydes, the carbonyl group has a hydrogen atom attached to it together with either a second hydrogen atom or, more commonly, a hydrocarbon group which might be an alkyl group or one containing a benzene ring.
For the purposes of this section, we shall ignore those containing benzene rings. Below are some examples of aldehydes Notice that these all have exactly the same end to the molecule. All that differs is the complexity of the other carbon group attached. When you are writing formulae for these, the aldehyde group the carbonyl group with the hydrogen atom attached is always written as -CHO — never as COH. That could easily be confused with an alcohol. Ketones In ketones, the carbonyl group has two carbon groups attached.
Again, these can be either alkyl groups or ones containing benzene rings. Notice that ketones never have a hydrogen atom attached to the carbonyl group. That means that ethanal boils at close to room temperature. Larger aldehydes and the ketones are liquids, with boiling points rising as the molecules get bigger. The size of the boiling point is governed by the strengths of the intermolecular forces.
There are two main intermolecular forces found in these molecules: London dispersion forces: These attractions get stronger as the molecules get longer and have more electrons. That increases the sizes of the temporary dipoles that are set up. This is why the boiling points increase as the number of carbon atoms in the chains increases — irrespective of whether you are talking about aldehydes or ketones.
Dipole-Dipole attractions: Both aldehydes and ketones are polar molecules because of the presence of the carbon-oxygen double bond. As well as the dispersion forces, there will also be attractions between the permanent dipoles on nearby molecules. That means that the boiling points will be higher than those of similarly sized hydrocarbons — which only have dispersion forces. It is interesting to compare three similarly sized molecules.
They have similar lengths, and similar although not identical numbers of electrons. The polarization of carbonyl groups also effects the boiling point of aldehydes and ketones which is higher than those of hydrocarbons of similar size.
However, since they cannot form hydrogen bonds, their boiling points tend to be lower than alcohols of similar size. Table 9. Note that compounds that have stronger intermolecular forces have higher boiling points. The solubility of aldehydes and ketones are therefore about the same as that of alcohols and ethers.
As the carbon chain increases in length, solubility in water decreases. The borderline of solubility occurs at about four carbon atoms per oxygen atom. All aldehydes and ketones are soluble in organic solvents and, in general, are less dense than water. Back to the Top Aldehydes and Ketones in Nature Similar to the other oxygen-containing functional groups discussed thus far, aldehydes and ketones are also widespread in nature and are often combined with other functional groups.
Examples of naturally occurring molecules which contain a aldehyde or ketone functional group are shown in the following two figures. The compounds in the figure 9. Many of these molecular structures are chiral and have distinct stereochemistry. When chiral compounds are found in nature they are usually enantiomerically pure, although different sources may yield different enantiomers. For example, carvone is found as its levorotatory R -enantiomer in spearmint oil, whereas, caraway seeds contain the dextrorotatory S -enantiomer.
In this case the change of the stereochemistry causes a drastic change in the perceived scent. Aldehydes and ketones are known for their sweet and sometimes pungent odors. The odor from vanilla extract comes from the molecule vanillin. Likewise, benzaldehyde provides a strong scent of almonds. Because of their pleasant fragrances aldehyde and ketone containing molecules are often found in perfumes.
However, not all of the fragrances are pleasing. In particular, 2-Heptanone provides part of the sharp scent from blue cheese and R -Muscone is part of the musky smell from the Himalayan musk deer. On the other hand, butane does not form H-bonding. Therefore, extra energy is required to break hydrogen bonds. Question 5. Alcohols are comparatively more soluble in water than hydrocarbons of comparable molecular masses. Explain this fact.
Therefore, alcohols are more soluble in water than hydrocarbons of comparable molecular masses. Question 6. What is meant by hydroboration-oxidation reaction? Illustrate it with an example. Solution: The addition of borane and followed by oxidation is known as the hydroborationoxidation reaction. Example: Propanol is formed by the hydroboration-oxidation reaction of the compound propene.
This electrophilic addition is followed by anti-Markownikoff rule. This electrophilic addition product is oxidized to alcohol by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of aqueous sodium hydroxide. Question 7. While separating a mixture of ortho and para nitrophenols by steam distillation, name the isomer which will be steam volatile. Give reason. Intramolecular H-bonding is present in o-nitrophenol while in p-nitrophenol, the molecules are strongly associated due to the presence of intermolecular bonding.
Hence, due to intramolecular H-bond, o-nitrophenol is steam volatile. Question 9. Give the equations of reactions for the preparation of phenol from cumene. Then, this cumene hydroperoxide is treated with dilute acid to prepare phenol and acetone. Question Write the chemical reaction for the preparation of phenol from chlorobenzene. Write the mechanism of hydration of ethene to yield ethanol.
Step 3: Deprotonation to form ethanol: Question You are given benzene, conc. Write the equations for the preparation of phenol using these reagents.
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Even if you wish to have an overview of a chapter, quick revision notes are here to do if for you. These notes will certainly save your time during stressful exam days. Class 12th chemistry chapter alcohol, phenol and ether Handwritten Notes Preparation Tips :- Students often face stress when the examinations are just round the corner but our Class 12 Handwritten notes will help you guys in reducing that stress. Moreover, as the exams approach, it is not the subject matter that you need but it is the final revision that would prove to be of immense help.
Revision is not just reading through the handwritten notes you made in class. One way of doing so is going through the notes for class 12 thoroughly. Alcohols Phenols and Ethers class 12 Notes. The revision notes covers all important formulas and concepts given in the chapter. Even if you wish to have an overview of a chapter, quick revision notes are here to do if for you. These notes will certainly save your time during stressful exam days.
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